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Ein Bedarf Cold Fusion Forschung besteht. - Wer hats erfunden?Suchverlauf Lesezeichen. The release of Adobe ColdFusion Standard Edition lets small and medium enterprises develop, design and deploy web and cloud-native applications seamlessly. Now simplify integration with a range of cloud services and eliminate performance bottlenecks with the Performance Monitoring Toolset. Work does continue though, and NASA recently published several papers on lattice confinement fusionwhich is definitely not called cold fusion, although it sounds like it to us. The idea of trapping. Adobe's ColdFusion community is the new hub for all industry leading web developers. Know the latest in web trends, get free trials and join webinars. On March 23, , Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announced their discovery of "cold fusion." It was the most heavily hyped science story of the decade, but the awed excitement quickly. Cold fusion is a hypothesized type of nuclear reaction that would occur at, or near, room temperature. J 29 June"Measurement of gamma-rays from cold Cold Fusion letter by Fleischmann et al. Discussions Featured Tags. Aktien Kaufen Und Verkaufen fusion papers are almost never published in refereed scientific journals, with the result that those works don't receive the normal critical scrutiny that science requires. Translated by Costigliola, Chiara Maria. Subsequently he testified before a Casino Spiele Liste 2021 вЂ“ CUMBAZA subcommittee considering the future of fusion. Retrieved 22 August Click on groups of 2 or more plasma pieces of the same color to fuse them and wipe them out. Technova abandoned cold fusion. This, finally, is his explanation for many negative results. Nuclear fusion of the type postulated would be inconsistent with current understanding and, if verified, would require established conjecture, perhaps even theory itself, to be extended in an unexpected The Star Casino Hotel. They blast the target with photons gammaswhich liberate hot neutrons from some of the deuterium ions in a process called bremsstrahlung photodissociation. Wsm Liga FUSION: The history of research in Italy PDF. Adobe Certification.
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He's going to be my guide. This lab is big - perhaps 50 feet long, divided into small cubicles with panels of steel-framed half-inch Lexan providing protection in case another explosion occurs.
Inside the cubicles are glass containers, pressure gauges, valves, and tubes where liquids surge and bubble. Watching cold fusion is like watching water boil in slow motion.
First, sufficient deuterium has to penetrate the palladium electrode. This can take a few weeks. Then, if excess heat is generated during the next month or two, accurate temperature readings require extreme precautions to exclude environmental effects.
After nine years of this work, he doesn't just live for it, he seems to live in it. He pauses thoughtfully. But - look, if you commit yourself in any direction, you always sacrifice the other things you've learned.
McKubre was summoned by Edward Teller. McKubre rejoins us and recounts his own background. He did postdoctoral research at Britain's Southampton University because, like Stanley Pons, he was impressed by Fleischmann's reputation.
Unlike Pons, however, McKubre lost touch with Fleischmann after relocating in the United States.
When cold fusion was announced, he was program manager in electrochemistry at SRI, funded by EPRI to develop sensors for nuclear reactors. By pure coincidence he was working routinely with deuterium and palladium, so - why not give it a try?
McKubre underestimated the complexities of heat measurement. Lo and behold, they both generated heat, and the bigger one generated more heat than the smaller one.
This was enough to convince us that the effect probably was real. Subsequently one cell at SRI generated times the heat that could be explained by any conceivable chemical reaction.
Overall, according to McKubre, "the ratio of power out to power in ranged from 1. Our new calorimeter was accurate to better than half a percent, so, without a doubt, the results were statistically significant.
Significant, and ignored - though some mainstream scientists maintained a discreet interest in the field. Around , McKubre says, he was summoned for an audience with legendary physicist Edward Teller.
You could see what a giant intellect he must have been in his time. I was subjected to this interrogation for four hours. At the end of it Teller said that he did not think that cold fusion was a reality, but if it were, he could account for it with a very small change in the laws of physics as he understood them, and it would prove to be an example of nuclear catalysis at an interface.
I still don't understand what he meant by that, but I'm quite willing to believe that it's correct. Currently, McKubre is overseeing a radically different experiment.
We walk down an echoing hallway, into a smaller room crammed with equipment. Amid the steady hum and whine of cooling fans, a large, bearded guy wearing khaki shorts and a short-sleeved shirt is sitting in front of a video screen.
He introduces himself as Russ George, 48, a former ecologist for the Canadian government who switched to cold fusion more than five years ago. He says he acquired his initial interest in science from his father, a nuclear physicist.
George has done some contract work on cold fusion for EPRI and the Navy, but much of his research is unpaid. It's been a proud and lonely struggle.
Beside him is a softball-sized steel sphere, submitted to the lab by a lone-wolf experimenter in New Hampshire named Les Case.
Inside the sphere are carbon granules coated with palladium, plus some deuterium gas under pressure. Case believes that if a moderate amount of heat is applied to these everyday, off-the-shelf items for a couple of weeks, nuclear fusion occurs - just as in a Pons-Fleischmann cell.
Intrigued, SRI put the same ingredients into a sealed cc stainless-steel flask and wrapped it in a heating element.
A tube from this flask is connected, now, to a mass-spectrometer - an enigmatic steel cabinet standing behind the video screen.
Any production of helium would be stunning proof that fusion is occurring, because helium only results from nuclear reactions.
No known chemical interaction can create it. So, any time it's been detected in other cold fusion experiments, people have said it must be getting in from ambient air, which contains about 5 parts per million.
We do sets of five analyses: First we check for helium in the instrument, then the helium background in ambient air, then the helium being generated by the apparatus.
Then we check the air again, and then we check the instrument again. I take a closer look at the ultrasimple experiment.
The problem is that even if they're very able people, they are not surrounded by a peer group that can challenge them and question them.
So, this is why SRI is running its own version of Case's experiment. They won't believe it till they see it themselves.
The road is narrow, twisting under a canopy of green. Quaint old houses hide among the trees, along with some quaint newer businesses such as Lumber Liquidators and Used Auto Parts.
A yellow diamond sign warns, "Horse Crossing. The car tires spin in the sandy soil as I emerge in a clearing where a large, modern home has been built recently.
Les Case is a tall, well-rounded figure in a plain white T-shirt, linen pants, and suspenders. At 68 he still has much of his hair, plus some truly amazing black eyebrows, like wild herbs scorched by some industrial accident.
He leads me down to his basement, lit by fluorescent lights and crammed to the ceiling with cardboard boxes. An old Remington typewriter stands on a '60s-style metal-legged formica table.
A workbench fashioned from massive chunks of lumber is cluttered with tools and hardware. An antique laboratory beam-balance stands in a glass cabinet.
I live in a slightly disorganized fashion. See, my wife died in She was a PhD chemist, her hobby was investing. I inherited her money, and have used a portion to fund my research.
I ask him how he ended up doing this. He explains that he grew up in Tulsa, obtained a substantial scholarship, and spent five and a half years at MIT, obtaining a doctorate in chemical engineering.
His childhood fantasy had been to get rich as a corporate executive, but he found he was better suited to lab work. He spent some years at DuPont, but wasn't a company man.
I got irritated, and left. He taught classes at colleges such as Purdue and Tufts. Along the way, he acquired 30 patents.
Finally, he read about Pons and Fleischmann. I'm a chemical engineer, a practical person, so I wanted to scale it up.
In he embarked on a courageous international odyssey that began in Japan, where a scientist named Yamaguchi had done interesting work with palladium.
Case found him, inspected a palladium disc from the experiment, and saw gold fused into it. Since this must have happened at around degrees Celsius, a huge amount of heat had been produced, perhaps by a burst of neutrons.
Back in the United States, Case looked for a lab where he could rent time with a neutron detector.
There were no takers, so he obtained a list of colleges in Eastern Europe, and went there. In Prague, he walked into an office unannounced and found himself facing the university's director, who fortunately happened to speak English.
When Case explained what he wanted to do, the man agreed. Then I thought, maybe a catalyst is needed. So I started making my own, and all of a sudden I got 1.
I don't believe in magic, so it had to be catalytic. He was still looking for neutrons, which would confirm a certain type of fusion reaction.
Any time anyone in Prague turned on a big machine, the counter counted it. But, aha! It's socialism, see? So one Sunday I finally got a quiet half hour, and - there were no neutrons.
He wasn't discouraged, though; he figured he must be looking at a different kind of deuterium fusion.
Back in America he paid a lab called Geochron, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to check for tritium. This, too, was negative. Deuterium plus deuterium, yielding helium 4, plus a gamma ray.
This cannot happen in the gas phase, so the hot fusion people never consider it. But when the gas atoms are in a crystal or a solid, it can happen, converting almost 1 percent of mass to energy, which I believe is the most energetic reaction that will ever be done on a macroscopic scale on Earth.
Case found no gamma radiation, for reasons he didn't understand; but when he sent one of his devices to Lockheed Martin, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, they reported that it appeared to generate an astonishing and inexplicable 90 parts per million of helium.
Now he had the confirmation he was looking for. Once I understood this, I made a prototype out of two stainless-steel gravy ladles. I've been perching on the edge of another old office chair.
I stand up, and Case retrieves his apparatus. I cut them up and paid a welder to join them. I tell him that so far SRI has generated only 5 parts per million of helium.
Russ George faxed me the graph. But it'll go up. In fact, at this point, he's looking far ahead, contemplating that childhood dream of entrepreneurial wealth.
First I'll do a watt demonstration unit. If that works, the next step is a water heater. Ultimately I could build a boiler that makes steam and drives a small turbine, creating electricity.
That'll require kilograms of catalyst, of which 0. A few ounces. We can afford that. Limited supplies of palladium would still tend to inhibit his grand plan.
A mine in Russia is unreliable, and there's only one other reliable source: "Stillwater mine in Montana," says Case. You should consider buying stock!
A medium-sized commercial power plant using my process will require , ounces of palladium, and the total supply is only 6 million ounces per year.
I may have to find a substitute. Titanium and nickel are possibilities. If his dreams come true, the implications are endless.
How many limestone mountains do you think we have? An indefinite supply. Another application is desalinization of seawater.
Los Angeles could get all its water straight out of the Pacific Ocean, with cheap energy for reverse osmosis.
Then there's Australia - vast areas of very fertile soil, a good climate, but no rain. I envisage aqueducts bringing water in from the ocean. It could become the breadbasket of Asia!
I get 3. Since the initial announcement, cold fusion research has continued by a small community of researchers who believe that such reactions happen and hope to gain wider recognition for their experimental evidence.
The ability of palladium to absorb hydrogen was recognized as early as the nineteenth century by Thomas Graham. However, the authors later retracted that report, saying that the helium they measured was due to background from the air.
In Swedish scientist John Tandberg reported that he had fused hydrogen into helium in an electrolytic cell with palladium electrodes. The term "cold fusion" was used as early as in an article in The New York Times about Luis Alvarez 's work on muon-catalyzed fusion.
The most famous cold fusion claims were made by Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann in After a brief period of interest by the wider scientific community, their reports were called into question by nuclear physicists.
Pons and Fleischmann never retracted their claims, but moved their research program to France after the controversy erupted.
Martin Fleischmann of the University of Southampton and Stanley Pons of the University of Utah hypothesized that the high compression ratio and mobility of deuterium that could be achieved within palladium metal using electrolysis might result in nuclear fusion.
Current was applied continuously for many weeks, with the heavy water being renewed at intervals. These high temperature phases would last for two days or more and would repeat several times in any given experiment once they had occurred.
The calculated power leaving the cell was significantly higher than the input power during these high temperature phases.
Eventually the high temperature phases would no longer occur within a particular cell. In Fleischmann and Pons applied to the United States Department of Energy for funding towards a larger series of experiments.
Fleischmann and Pons and co-workers met with Jones and co-workers on occasion in Utah to share research and techniques. During this time, Fleischmann and Pons described their experiments as generating considerable "excess energy", in the sense that it could not be explained by chemical reactions alone.
Jones, however, was measuring neutron flux, which was not of commercial interest. In mid-March , both research teams were ready to publish their findings, and Fleischmann and Jones had agreed to meet at an airport on 24 March to send their papers to Nature via FedEx.
Fleischmann and Pons' announcement drew wide media attention. Its discovery 30 years earlier had also been unexpected, though it was quickly replicated and explained within the existing physics framework.
The announcement of a new purported clean source of energy came at a crucial time: adults still remembered the oil crisis and the problems caused by oil dependence, anthropogenic global warming was starting to become notorious, the anti-nuclear movement was labeling nuclear power plants as dangerous and getting them closed, people had in mind the consequences of strip mining , acid rain , the greenhouse effect and the Exxon Valdez oil spill , which happened the day after the announcement.
Peterson , Fleischmann and Pons, backed by the solidity of their scientific credentials, repeatedly assured the journalists that cold fusion would solve environmental problems, and would provide a limitless inexhaustible source of clean energy, using only seawater as fuel.
Although the experimental protocol had not been published, physicists in several countries attempted, and failed, to replicate the excess heat phenomenon.
The first paper submitted to Nature reproducing excess heat, although it passed peer review, was rejected because most similar experiments were negative and there were no theories that could explain a positive result; [notes 2]  this paper was later accepted for publication by the journal Fusion Technology.
Nathan Lewis , professor of chemistry at the California Institute of Technology , led one of the most ambitious validation efforts, trying many variations on the experiment without success,  while CERN physicist Douglas R.
Morrison said that "essentially all" attempts in Western Europe had failed. In April , Fleischmann and Pons published a "preliminary note" in the Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry.
Nevertheless, Fleischmann and Pons and a number of other researchers who found positive results remained convinced of their findings. On 30 April cold fusion was declared dead by The New York Times.
The Times called it a circus the same day, and the Boston Herald attacked cold fusion the following day. On 1 May the American Physical Society held a session on cold fusion in Baltimore, including many reports of experiments that failed to produce evidence of cold fusion.
At the end of the session, eight of the nine leading speakers stated that they considered the initial Fleischmann and Pons claim dead, with the ninth, Johann Rafelski , abstaining.
Koonin of Caltech called the Utah report a result of " the incompetence and delusion of Pons and Fleischmann, " which was met with a standing ovation.
Morrison , a physicist representing CERN , was the first to call the episode an example of pathological science. On 4 May, due to all this new criticism, the meetings with various representatives from Washington were cancelled.
In July and November , Nature published papers critical of cold fusion claims. The United States Department of Energy organized a special panel to review cold fusion theory and research.
Nuclear fusion of the type postulated would be inconsistent with current understanding and, if verified, would require established conjecture, perhaps even theory itself, to be extended in an unexpected way.
The panel was against special funding for cold fusion research, but supported modest funding of "focused experiments within the general funding system".
In March Michael H. Salamon, a physicist from the University of Utah , and nine co-authors reported negative results. The lawyer later apologized; Fleischmann defended the threat as a legitimate reaction to alleged bias displayed by cold-fusion critics.
On 30 June the National Cold Fusion Institute closed after it ran out of funds;  it found no excess heat, and its reports of tritium production were met with indifference.
On 1 January Pons left the University of Utah and went to Europe. Mostly in the s, several books were published that were critical of cold fusion research methods and the conduct of cold fusion researchers.
A review by a cold fusion proponent had calculated "about scientists" were still conducting research. These small but committed groups of cold fusion researchers have continued to conduct experiments using Fleischmann and Pons electrolysis setups in spite of the rejection by the mainstream community.
A group of scientists at well-known research labs e. Their reported conclusion: no cold fusion. Cold fusion research continues today [ when?
The researchers who continue acknowledge that the flaws in the original announcement are the main cause of the subject's marginalization, and they complain of a chronic lack of funding  and no possibilities of getting their work published in the highest impact journals.
A pariah field, cast out by the scientific establishment. Between cold fusion and respectable science there is virtually no communication at all. Cold fusion papers are almost never published in refereed scientific journals, with the result that those works don't receive the normal critical scrutiny that science requires.
On the other hand, because the Cold-Fusioners see themselves as a community under siege, there is little internal criticism.
Experiments and theories tend to be accepted at face value, for fear of providing even more fuel for external critics, if anyone outside the group was bothering to listen.
In these circumstances, crackpots flourish, making matters worse for those who believe that there is serious science going on here.
United States Navy researchers at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center SPAWAR in San Diego have been studying cold fusion since In August , the U.
Secretary of Energy , Spencer Abraham , ordered the DOE to organize a second review of the field. Hagelstein ,  : 3 and the publication of many new papers, including the Italian ENEA and other researchers in the International Cold Fusion Conference,  and a two-volume book by U.
SPAWAR in The report was released in The reviewers were "split approximately evenly" on whether the experiments had produced energy in the form of heat, but "most reviewers, even those who accepted the evidence for excess power production, 'stated that the effects are not repeatable, the magnitude of the effect has not increased in over a decade of work, and that many of the reported experiments were not well documented.
While significant progress has been made in the sophistication of calorimeters since the review of this subject in , the conclusions reached by the reviewers today are similar to those found in the review.
The current reviewers identified a number of basic science research areas that could be helpful in resolving some of the controversies in the field, two of which were: 1 material science aspects of deuterated metals using modern characterization techniques, and 2 the study of particles reportedly emitted from deuterated foils using state-of-the-art apparatus and methods.
The reviewers believed that this field would benefit from the peer-review processes associated with proposal submission to agencies and paper submission to archival journals.
Cold fusion researchers placed a "rosier spin"  on the report, noting that they were finally being treated like normal scientists, and that the report had increased interest in the field and caused "a huge upswing in interest in funding cold fusion research.
The grant was intended to support research into the interactions of hydrogen with palladium, nickel or platinum under extreme conditions. Hubler, a nuclear physicist who worked for the Naval Research Laboratory for 40 years, was named director.
He claims that the new experiment has already seen "neutron emissions at similar levels to the observation". In May , the United States House Committee on Armed Services , in its report on the National Defense Authorization Act, directed the Secretary of Defense to "provide a briefing on the military utility of recent U.
Since the Fleischmann and Pons announcement, the Italian national agency for new technologies, energy and sustainable economic development ENEA has funded Franco Scaramuzzi's research into whether excess heat can be measured from metals loaded with deuterium gas.
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